Mammography is radiography or x-ray of the breast, and is referred to as either:
Two x-ray views are taken when you undergo a breast screening mammography: one downwards from the top of the breast and the other vertically from the side of the breast.
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An x-ray of the breast
At the same time as the two mammograms are taken, a camera takes images of the breast - every 2 degrees - the computer reconstructs this into 1mm slices through the breast.
Yes - you will be taken through your images by a specialist radiologist at your appointment.
Screening mammography is a wellness test, and may detect breast problems before you have any symptoms or concerns. It may show changes in the breast up to two years before you or your doctor can feel a breast lump. This early detection of small breast cancers is important as it enables early treatment for the cancer.Diagnostic mammography is used to assist in the diagnosis of an area of concern already identified by you or your doctor.
Regular screening mammography is recommended for all women over 40 years of age. Plus there are other recommendations:
We maintain strict processes to ensure our mammography service meets international quality standards.
You will be asked to remove your clothing from the waist up, and given a gown to wear. For ease of undressing, you may like to wear a shirt and a skirt, or trousers.
Please do not wear deodorant or talcum powder on your breasts or armpits on the day of your examination. We do however, provide wipes and deodorant for your personal use.
Discuss any breast symptoms or problems with the mammographer before the examination and bring along any previous mammography films to your appointment.
It is important for the radiologists interpreting the mammogram to have previous studies for comparison as they compare previous films with new images to look for any areas of change to the breast.
Please remember to also bring the referral note from your doctor.
A skilled mammographer will take at least two pictures of each breast. Each breast is placed on the x-ray machine nand compressed with a plastic paddle. This flattening of the breast will reduce the breast thickness and hold the breast still, which optimises image quality and reduces radiation dosage.
Most women would describe the compression as uncomfortable, rather than painful. If you have found the compression painful, please discuss your concerns with the mammographer.
Sometimes further x-ray views may be needed to show an area of the breast more clearly. Don't be concerned if this occurs. An ultrasound scan may also be necessary to complete your examination.
In most instances having a mammogram only takes about 20 minutes.
We may in some cases also need to perform an ultrasound.
After the images are taken of the breast, you will be asked to wait until the mammographer has viewed them to see if any more are needed.
The Radiologist may ask if you wish to see the images and will give you your result then.
A Three-dimensional (3D) mammogram, also known as breast tomosynthesis, is a type of digital mammography in which x-ray machines are used to take many pictures of thin slices of the breast to produce a 3D image. This process is similar to how a computed tomography (CT) scanner produces images of structures inside of the body.
With a mammogram, glandular and fibrous tissue is white and fat is seen as black.Cancers are also seen as white so they can hide in normal glandular breast tissue, particularly if the breasts are dense which is seen in our clinic population.The 3D tomosynthesis takes images through the breast while the mammogram is taken, and the computer reconstructs this into 1mm slices through the breast.Our specialist radiologist reads this in conjunction with the state of the art 2D digital images.This improves cancer detection and reduces the number of unnecessary biopsies.
Cancer visible on the right 3D mammogram but not the left 2D mammogram.
• Increases the cancer detection rate• Reduces false negative mammogram results especially in women with dense breast tissue• Reduces the recall rate• Reduces unnecessary biopsies• Provides a 3D image to the surgeon.
We have installed dose reduction software so that the total radiation is 30% less than with conventional mammography.
The new technology uses less compression and takes about 20 seconds longer to take the image than standard film mammography.
The modern design has patient comfort in mind.
Please do not wear deodorant or talcum powder on your breasts or armpits on the day of your examination. We do however provide wipes and deodorant for your personal use.
It is important for the radiologists interpreting the mammogram to have previous studies for comparison as they compare previous films with new images to look for any areas of change.
A skilled mammographer will take at least two pictures of each breast. Each breast is placed on the x-ray machine and compressed with a plastic paddle. This flattening of the breast will reduce the breast thickness and hold the breast still, which optimises image quality and reduces radiation dosage.
After the images are taken, you will be asked to wait until the mammographer has viewed them to see if any more are needed.
There may be a need to perform a breast ultrasound in addition to the mammogram. The reason for this will be explained to you. Note- there is an additional cost involved.
A breast ultrasound may be required if you have dense breast tissue. In younger women breast tissue is often more dense, and a mammogram may not show as much detail.
A breast ultrasound uses sound waves to make a picture of the tissues inside the breast. A breast ultrasound can show all areas of the breast, including the area closest to the chest wall, which is hard to study with a mammogram. Breast ultrasound does not use x-rays.
A breast ultrasound is used to see whether a breast lump is filled with fluid (a cyst) or if it is a solid lump. An ultrasound does not replace the need for a mammogram, but it is often used to help check dense breasts and to check areas of interest demonstrated on a mammogram.
A small handheld unit called a transducer is gently passed back and forth over the breast. A computer turns the sound waves into a picture on a TV screen. The picture is called a sonogram or ultrasound scan.
A specially trained radiologist will perform the breast ultrasound. A chaperone is available if a male radiographer is on duty.
An ultrasound probe is placed over the site of the lump in the breast and the specialist radiologist, using local anaesthesia, places a specialised spring biopsy needle into the mass. Tissue specimens are then taken for examination by a pathologist.
This appointment will take up to 40-60 minutes. Please wear a shirt and trousers, or a skirt for comfort.
After your biopsy appointment
Our receptionist will make an appointment for you to see one of our breast specialists pending the biopsy results.
Your biopsy results will take up to 3-5 days.
This procedure is performed prior to the surgeon removing a small abnormal area in your breast. The abnormality can be seen on your mammogram (breast x-ray), but is unable to be felt by your doctor, making it difficult to locate it for removal. The marker makes removal easier.
This procedure will take 40 to 60 minutes. Please wear a shirt and trousers, or skirt, and bring someone with you to take you to the surgical clinic or hospital, where you are likely to go straight after the localisation procedure. Bring a suitcase of personal effects for your stay in the surgical ward. Your surgeon will indicate how long you will need to stay in the surgical unit after the surgery.
There are two stages to this procedure: localisation and excision. We will perform the localisation in our clinic, and you will travel to the hospital for the excision, or removal, of the lump.
A mammographer and a radiologist will explain the procedure to you. You will have an initial mammography image taken of your breast. After the radiologist has seen this film, the mammographer will sit or lie you by the mammography machine. When you are in position your breast will be compressed. You will be in this position for a while, so let the mammographer know if the position or pressure is too uncomfortable.
The radiologist will prepare the area with liquid skin wash.
After local anaesthetic has been injected, a fine needle will be inserted into the breast and placed near the area that the surgeon wants to locate. X-rays from both the side and the top of the breast will be taken to check the positioning of this needle.
When the needle is correctly located, a fine wire will be threaded through the needle and the needle withdrawn. This piece of wire will stay in the breast to mark the area for the surgeon.
The wire has a small hook at the end that keeps it secure. When the localisation procedure is completed, the end of the needle is secured onto your skin with tape. You can put on your bra or, if you prefer, just wear a shirt or top. The wire will stay in place with normal movement - but you shouldn't swing your arm vigorously.
MRI combines the use of a very strong magnet, radio waves and a computer system to provide detailed images of internal structures and soft tissue structures of the breast. The level of detail seen with an MRI is extraordinary compared with any other imaging modality.
Electrical pulses are used to vary the direction and strength of the magnetic field, causing temporary magnetic realignment of atoms and molecules within your body. The machine's powerful computers can recognise the changes in the atoms as typical of organs and other structures within the body, building up a picture of the body parts.
What is MRI used for?
MRI is an imaging option for examining the breast. It is the most sensitive for the detection of breast cancer. It is used in breast disease to determine the size and number of breast lesions, to examine the other breast and or surveillance in women with a strong family history of breast cancer. MRI requires specialised equipment and expertise, and allows evaluation of some body structures that may not be as visible with other imaging methods.
Please phone us for an appointment. The receptionist will give you:
Some MRI scans require an injection of contrast medium. This shows up on the MRI images, and enables the radiologist to identify some organs or internal structures more clearly. It causes no complication in the vast majority of people who have it.
Because the strong magnetic field will affect any metallic object implanted in the body, MRI staff will ask whether you have a artificial joint (eg, hip replacement), heart pacemaker (or artificial heart valve), implanted device (eg, intrauterine device, IUD) or any metal plates, pins, screws or surgical staples in your body. In most cases, surgical staples, plates, pins and screws pose no risk during MRI if they have been in place for more than four to six weeks.
You will be asked if you have ever had a bullet or shrapnel in your body, or ever worked with metal. If there is any question that you may have a metal fragment embedded in your soft tissue, you may be asked to have an x-ray to detect if this is the case. Tooth fillings and dental braces are usually not affected by the magnetic field, but discuss the braces with the radiologist.
As MRI may result in local heating of the skin around tattoos and permanent eyeliner please discuss these with the MRI Radiographer.
If you are particularly anxious about having an MRI, a friend or relative is welcome to come with you to the MRI scanning room. It is safe for them to be in there as there are no x-rays used. This person will also need to complete the questionaire about metallic implants etc.
You will be asked to remove hair clips, jewellery, glasses, hearing aids, and any removable dental plates. If there is a chance you could be pregnant, please let the staff know.
The MRI machine is basically a large cylinder-shaped magnet. A specially trained MRI radiographer will position you on a couch that will then move into the donut-shaped cylinder for image capture. You will have to remain very still during the scanning process. If you have difficulty lying flat, or suffer from claustrophobia, please inform the radiologist prior to the examination.
The radiographer will go behind a partition to operate the scanner. He or she is able to talk to you via a two-way intercom during the scan and will let you know what is happening. If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to ask at any time, even during the MRI scan.
The MRI machine makes a loud banging noise (from the coil movement) while scanning. You will be provided with earplugs or headphones to reduce any discomfort from the noise. Please bring along a favourite CD if you’d like us to play this during the scan.
An MRI procedure takes between 30 and 60 minutes.
Once the images of the breast are recorded, the images and report will be sent to your referring doctor.
You may eat and drink normally. There are no after affects from this MRI.